Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Ei
gen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxi
ma and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.
Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume i
ntegrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher ord
er linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations;
Laplace transforms; PDEs – Laplace, heat and wave equations.
Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Ran
dom variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and
regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; i
ntegration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multi-step methods
for differential equations.



Sources of power on the farm-human, animal, mechanical, electrical, wind,
solar and biomass; bio-fuels; design and selection of machine elements – g
ears, pulleys, chains and sprockets and belts; overload safety devices use
d in farm machinery; measurement of force, torque, speed, displacement and
acceleration on machine elements.
Soil tillage; forces acting on a tillage tool; hitch systems and hitching of
tillage implements; mechanics of animal traction; functional requirements, pr
inciples of working, construction and operation of manual, animal and power o
perated equipment for tillage, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, inte
r-cultivation, spraying, mowing, chaff cutting, harvesting, threshing and tra
nsport; testing of agricultural machinery and equipment; calculation of perfo
rmance parameters -field capacity, efficiency, application rate and losses; c
ost analysis of implements and tractors
Thermodynamic principles of I.C. engines; I.C. engine cycles; engine compone
nts; fuels and combustion; lubricants and their properties; I.C. engine syst
ems – fuel, cooling, lubrication, ignition, electrical, intake and exhaust;
selection, operation, maintenance and repair of I.C. engines; power efficien
cies and measurement; calculation of power, torque, fuel consumption, heat l
oad and power losses.
Tractors and power tillers – type, selection, maintenance and repair; tractor
clutches and brakes; power transmission systems – gear trains, differential,
final drives and power take-off; mechanics of tractor chassis; traction theo
ry; three point hitches- free link and restrained link operations; mechanical
steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors; human engineering a
nd safety in tractor design; tractor tests and performance.


Ideal and real fluids, properties of fluids; hydrostatic pressure and its m
easurement; hydrostatic forces on plane and curved surface; continuity equa
tion; Bernoulli’s theorem; laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, Darcy- Weis
bach and Hazen-Williams equations, Moody’s diagram; flow through orifices a
nd notches; flow in open channels.
Engineering properties of soils; fundamental definitions and relationships; in
dex properties of soils; permeability and seepage analysis; shear strength, Mo
hr’s circle of stress, active and passive earth pressures; stability of slopes
Hydrological cycle; meteorological parameters and their measurement, analys
is of precipitation data; abstraction from precipitation; runoff; hydrograp
h analysis, unit hydrograph theory and application; stream flow measurement
; flood routing, hydrological reservoir and channel routing.
Measurement of distance and area; chain surveying, methods of traversing; m
easurement of angles and bearings, plane table surveying; types of levellin
g; contouring; instruments for surveying and levelling; computation of eart
h work.
Mechanics of soil erosion, soil erosion types; wind and water erosion; facto
rs affecting erosion; soil loss estimation; biological and engineering measu
res to control erosion; terraces and bunds; vegetative waterways; gully cont
rol structures, drop, drop inlet and chute spillways; earthen dams; water ha
rvesting structures, farm ponds, watershed management.
Soil-water-plant relationship, water requirement of crops; consumptive use an
d evapotranspiration; irrigation scheduling; irrigation efficiencies; design
of irrigation channels; measurement of soil moisture, irrigation water and in
filtration; surface, sprinkler and drip methods of irrigation; design and eva
luation of irrigation methods.
Drainage coefficient; planning, design and layout of surface and sub-surface
drainage systems; leaching requirement and salinity control; irrigation and
drainage water quality.
Groundwater occurrence confined and unconfined aquifers, evaluation of aqu
ifer properties; well hydraulics; groundwater recharge.
Classification of pumps; pump characteristics; pump selection and installati


Steady state heat transfer in conduction, convection and radiation; transien
t heat transfer in simple geometry; condensation and boiling heat transfer;
working principles of heat exchangers; diffusive and convective mass transfe
r; simultaneous heat and mass transfer in agricultural processing operations.
Material and energy balances in food processing systems; water activity, sorp
tion and desorption isotherms; centrifugal separation of solids, liquids and
gases; kinetics of microbial death – pasteurization and sterilization of liqu
id foods; preservation of food by cooling and freezing; refrigeration and col
d storage basics and applications; psychrometry – properties of air-vapour mi
xture; concentration and drying of liquid foods – evaporators, tray, drum and
spray dryers.
Mechanics and energy requirement in size reduction of granular solids; parti
cle size analysis for comminuted solids; size separation by screening; fluid
ization of granular solids-pneumatic, bucket, screw and belt conveying; clea
ning and grading; Effectiveness of grain cleaners.
Hydrothermal treatment, drying and milling of cereals, pulses and oilseeds;
Processing of seeds, spices, fruits and vegetables; By-product utilization f
rom processing industries.
Controlled and modified atmosphere storage; Perishable food storage, godown
s, bins and grain silos.