Horticulture

HORTICULTURE CAPSULE

This capsule contains all the Important Points of Horticulture required for IBPS S.O. AGRI. FIELD OFFICER Exam.

 

  • Share of Horticulture in Agriculture GDP of India :- 30.5 % [2008-09]
  • Area under Horticulture cultivation:- 21.2 Million Hectare [2009-10]
  • Central Institute of Horticulture was established in Medziphema (Nagaland) in January,2008.
  • India is the second largest fruit producer in the world, it produces 11% of World’s Fruit Production.
  • China is ranked 1st in World’s Fruit Production.
  • Top Indian Fruit Producing States [2011-2012]
  • Maharshtra [13.78%]
  • Andhra Pradesh [12.87%]
  • Tamil Nadu [11.16%]
  • Gujarat [9.84%]
  • Per Person Availability (Gm/Person/Day) [2011-12]
  1. Fruits- 172
  2. Vegetables- 350

 

Countries & Indian States with Highest Fruit Production :-

Sl. No. FRUITS COUNTRIES STATES (INDIA)
01 Apple China> USA> India Jammu & Kashmir
02 Grapes China> USA> Italy Maharashtra> Karnataka
03 Mango India> China Uttar Pradesh
04 Guava India Maharashtra> M.P.> U.P.
05 Pineapple Thailand> Costa Rica West Bengal> Assam
06 Banana India> China Tamil Nadu> Maharashtra
07 Citrus China> Nigeria> Columbia> India Andhra Pradesh> Maharashtra
08 Litchi China Bihar
09 Orange Brazil (India on 4th) Maharashtra
10 Papaya India> Brazil Andhra Pradesh> Gujarat
11 Sapota India Gujarat
12 Pomegranate India Maharashtra
13 Coconut Indonesia> Phillipines Kerala
14 Amla India Uttar Pradesh
15 Walnut China (India on 8th) Jammu & Kashmir
16 Almonds USA> Spain
17 Pear China> Italy (India on (9th) Himachal Pradesh

Highest Fruit Producing State:-

  • Maharashtra (13.72%)
  • Uttar Pradesh (12.29%)
  • Highest Productivity State:-
  • Karnataka (17.3 ton/hect)
  • Maharashtra (17.2 ton/hect)

Fruits with Highest Area Cover in India :-

  • Mango [37.8%]
  • Citrus [12.9%]
  • Banana [12.5%]
  • Apple
  • Guava

Fruits with highest production in India:-

  • Banana [35.9%]
  • Mango [22.8%]
  • Citrus [10%]
  • Guava [4.12%]
  • Papaya [3.59%]

 

AVAILABILITY OF NUTRIENTS IN FRUITS :-

  • VITAMINS:-
  1. Vitamin A :- Mango> Papaya> Parsimon
  2. Vitamin B1 (Thymin) :- Cashew Nut> Walnut> Almond> Pineapple
  3. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) :- Bel> Papaya> Cashew Nut> Litchi
  4. Vitamin C :- Barbados Cherry> Anwla> Guava> Lemon> Sweet Orange
  • CARBOHYDRATES:- Resin> Pineapple> Dates> Banana> Bel> Jamun
  • PROTIENS:- Cashew Nut(21.2%)> Almond(20.8%)> Walnut(15.6%)
  • FAT:- Walnut(64.5%)> Almond(58.9%)> Cashew Nut(46.9%)> Avocado(22.8%)
  • CARBONIC ACIDS:-
  1. Citric Acid:- Berry> Citric Fruits> Guava> Pear
  2. Malic Acid:- Apple> Banana> Cherry> Plum> Watermelon
  3. Tartaric Acid:- Tamarind(Imli)> Grapes
  • MINERALS:-
  1. Calcium:- Litchi> Karonda> Walnut
  2. Iron:- Karonda> Dates> Walnut> Apple
  3. Phosphorus:- Almonds> Cashew Nut> Walnut> Litchi

 

CLASSIFICATION OF FRUITS ACCORDING TO ATMOSPHERE:-

  • Tropical Fruits:- Mango, Banana, Papaya, Pineapple, Custard, Jackfruit, Cashew Nut, Sapota, Nuts etc.
  • Sub-Tropical Fruits:- Grapes, Fig(Anzir), Oranges, Lemon, Guava, Avocado, Litchi, Ber, Dates, Phalsa, Pomegranate, Amla, Lokat
  • Temperate Fruits:- Apple, Pear, Almonds, Cherry, Strawberry, Walnut, Chestnut, Hazelnut, Peeknut, Chilgoza, Khubani, Aadu, Aaloo-Bukhara
  • Evergreen Fruits:- Mango, Litchi, Lemon, Sapota, Lokat
  • Autumn Fruits:- Apple, Pear, Aadu, Aalucha, Khubani

CLASSIFICATION OF FRUITS ON FRUIT TYPE:-

  • Drupe Type:- Mango, Almond, Ber, Coconut, Aadu, Jamun, Aalucha
  • Berry Type:- Papaya, Banana, Guava, Date, Berry, Sapota
  • Pome Type:- Apple, Pear, Lokat
  • Hesperidium:- Orange, Citrus
  • Cyconus Type:- Anzeer
  • Nut Type:- Litchi, Cashew nut
  • Capsule Type:- Amla
  • Sorosis Type:- Pineapple, Jackfruit, Mulberry(Sahtoot)
  • Blastulla:- Pomegranate

EDIBLE PART OF FRUITS:-

  1. Mesocarp:- Mango, Banana, Papaya
  2. Mesocarp & Endocarp:- Banana, Ber
  3. Fleshy Thalamus:- Apple, Pear, Lukat
  4. Fleshy Aril:- Litchi
  5. Pericarp:- Grapes, Guava, Tomato
  6. Endosperm, Cotyledons & Embryo:- Coconut
  7. Juicy Testa:- Pomegranate
  8. Endocarpic Juicy Hairs:- Citrus
  9. Perianth:- Mulberry(Sahtoot)
  10. Seed:- Almond

SOME COMMON DESIGNATIONS OF FRUITS :-

  • King of Fruits:- Mango
  • Queen of Fruits:- Litchi
  • King of Temperate Fruits:- Apple
  • Butter Fruit:- Avocado
  • Fruit of New World:- Avocado
  • King of Arid Fruits:- Ber
  • Poor Man’s Fruit:- Ber
  • Century Plant (CAM Plant):- Dates
  • King of Forest:- Teak
  • Adam’s Fig:- Banana
  • Queen of Nuts:- Peanut
  • Fancy Fruits:- Andarin
  • King of Nut:- Walnut
  • Devine Tree/ Aeon Tree (Kalp-Vriksha):- Coconut

 

DISEASES IN FRUITS DUE TO DEFICIENCY OF SUBSTANCES:-

  1. Dieback in Lemon:- Copper (Cu)
  2. Little Leaf in Lemon:- Copper (Cu)
  3. Yellow Spot Disorder in Lemon:- Molybdenum (Mb)
  4. Internal Necrocin in Annola:- Boron (Bo)
  5. Little Leaf in Mango & Brinjal:- Zinc (Zn)
  6. Millerandge Disorder in Grapes:- Boron (Bo)
  7. Water Core in Banana :- Due to Particles of Ice & Deposition of Sorbitol
  8. Bronzing in Guava:- Zinc (Zn)
  9. Scorching (Burning of Leaves) in Mango:- Potassium (K) & Excess of Chloride in Water
  10. Internal Necrocin in Mangoes:- Boron (Bo)
  11. Scorching in Litchi:- Potassium (K)
  12. Black Tip in Mango:- SO2 Gas from Kiln
  13. Bunchy Disease in Peanut :- Zinc (Zn)
  14. “Hen & Chicken” in Grapes:- Boron (Bo)

SOME IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT FRUITS:-

  • West Bengal is the largest producer of Pineapple in India.
  • Nagpur[Maharashtra] is the largest producer of oranges in India.
  • Largest producer of Sapota is Maharashtra followed by Karnataka.
  • Mango is planted at 10x10m distance while Banana at 3x3m. Both are commercially broadcasted by the following methods respectively:- Beniar Grafting, Enarching, Circus.
  • Minimum requirement of fruits for human are 92gm.
  • The largest exporter nations of Banana in the world are:- Equador & Costa Rica respectively.
  • India is the largest Producer, Consumer, & Exporter of Cashew Nuts in the world. Maharashtra is the largest producer of Cashew Nuts in India followed by Kerala.
  • In fruits, maximum Vitamin C is present in Barbados Cherry.
  • In India, Annola (Awla) is produced maximum in Uttar Pradesh (Pratapgarh). Honeybees help in pollination of Annola.
  • In fruits, Litchi, Oranges, Lokat, Peach, & Apricot has their origin place in China; Bel,, Jackfruit & Falsa in India; Papaya, Avocado & Sapota in Mexico; Guava in Peru; Banana in South-Western Asia; Annola in Indo-China And Mango in Indo-Burma.
  • Bel is the main source of Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin).
  • Karonda is the main source of Iron.

Posted in IBPS SO (AFO) STUDY MATERIALS- Professional Knowledge, Uncategorized Tagged with: , , , ,
  • Ajit Kumar Prasad

    Queen of Fruit is= Mangosteen

    • TEAMKRISHIGYAN

      Hi Ajit,
      There is lots of contradiction on king and queen of fruits.If you search on internet you will find “Durian” as King of fruits and “Mangosteen” as Queen of fruits in most of the places.
      We have to follow what most of the Indian books follow and that’s Mango & Litchi respectively.
      Thanks for identifying the confusion.

  • Vikrant

    little leaf of brinjal:phytoplasma

  • ALOK KUMAR

    queen of fruit is “MANGOSTEEN” ….

  • jaya

    King of flowers -?
    Queen of flowers-?……need ans for these que

    • santosh

      King of flower :- gladiolus
      Queen of flower :- rose

    • yash

      king of flower-rose
      queen -glaidiolus

  • sambhaji kisamrao mane

    speed test(ibps so) is avilable on your website. plz send my email.

  • all material of krishi gyan is very important