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HORTICULTURE CAPSULEThis capsule contains all the Important Points of Horticulture required for IBPS S.O. AGRI. FIELD OFFICER Exam.

 

  • Share of Horticulture in Agriculture GDP of India :- 30.5 % [2008-09]
  • Area under Horticulture cultivation:- 21.2 Million Hectare [2009-10]
  • Central Institute of Horticulture was established in Medziphema (Nagaland) in January,2008.
  • India is the second largest fruit producer in the world, it produces 11% of World’s Fruit Production.
  • China is ranked 1st in World’s Fruit Production.
  • Top Indian Fruit Producing States [2011-2012]
  • Maharshtra [13.78%]
  • Andhra Pradesh [12.87%]
  • Tamil Nadu [11.16%]
  • Gujarat [9.84%]
  • Per Person Availability (Gm/Person/Day) [2011-12]
  1. Fruits- 172
  2. Vegetables- 350

 

Countries & Indian States with Highest Fruit Production :-

Sl. No.FRUITSCOUNTRIESSTATES (INDIA)01AppleChina> USA> IndiaJammu & Kashmir02GrapesChina> USA> ItalyMaharashtra> Karnataka03MangoIndia> ChinaUttar Pradesh04GuavaIndiaMaharashtra> M.P.> U.P.05PineappleThailand> Costa RicaWest Bengal> Assam06BananaIndia> ChinaTamil Nadu> Maharashtra07CitrusChina> Nigeria> Columbia> IndiaAndhra Pradesh> Maharashtra08LitchiChinaBihar09OrangeBrazil (India on 4th)Maharashtra10PapayaIndia> BrazilAndhra Pradesh> Gujarat11SapotaIndiaGujarat12PomegranateIndiaMaharashtra13CoconutIndonesia> PhillipinesKerala14AmlaIndiaUttar Pradesh15WalnutChina (India on 8th)Jammu & Kashmir16AlmondsUSA> Spain17PearChina> Italy (India on (9th)Himachal Pradesh

Highest Fruit Producing State:-

  • Maharashtra (13.72%)
  • Uttar Pradesh (12.29%)
  • Highest Productivity State:-
  • Karnataka (17.3 ton/hect)
  • Maharashtra (17.2 ton/hect)

Fruits with Highest Area Cover in India :-

  • Mango [37.8%]
  • Citrus [12.9%]
  • Banana [12.5%]
  • Apple
  • Guava

Fruits with highest production in India:-

  • Banana [35.9%]
  • Mango [22.8%]
  • Citrus [10%]
  • Guava [4.12%]
  • Papaya [3.59%]

 

AVAILABILITY OF NUTRIENTS IN FRUITS :-

  • VITAMINS:-
  1. Vitamin A :- Mango> Papaya> Parsimon
  2. Vitamin B1 (Thymin) :- Cashew Nut> Walnut> Almond> Pineapple
  3. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) :- Bel> Papaya> Cashew Nut> Litchi
  4. Vitamin C :- Barbados Cherry> Anwla> Guava> Lemon> Sweet Orange
  • CARBOHYDRATES:- Resin> Pineapple> Dates> Banana> Bel> Jamun
  • PROTIENS:- Cashew Nut(21.2%)> Almond(20.8%)> Walnut(15.6%)
  • FAT:- Walnut(64.5%)> Almond(58.9%)> Cashew Nut(46.9%)> Avocado(22.8%)
  • CARBONIC ACIDS:-
  1. Citric Acid:- Berry> Citric Fruits> Guava> Pear
  2. Malic Acid:- Apple> Banana> Cherry> Plum> Watermelon
  3. Tartaric Acid:- Tamarind(Imli)> Grapes
  • MINERALS:-
  1. Calcium:- Litchi> Karonda> Walnut
  2. Iron:- Karonda> Dates> Walnut> Apple
  3. Phosphorus:- Almonds> Cashew Nut> Walnut> Litchi

 

CLASSIFICATION OF FRUITS ACCORDING TO ATMOSPHERE:-

  • Tropical Fruits:- Mango, Banana, Papaya, Pineapple, Custard, Jackfruit, Cashew Nut, Sapota, Nuts etc.
  • Sub-Tropical Fruits:- Grapes, Fig(Anzir), Oranges, Lemon, Guava, Avocado, Litchi, Ber, Dates, Phalsa, Pomegranate, Amla, Lokat
  • Temperate Fruits:- Apple, Pear, Almonds, Cherry, Strawberry, Walnut, Chestnut, Hazelnut, Peeknut, Chilgoza, Khubani, Aadu, Aaloo-Bukhara
  • Evergreen Fruits:- Mango, Litchi, Lemon, Sapota, Lokat
  • Autumn Fruits:- Apple, Pear, Aadu, Aalucha, Khubani

CLASSIFICATION OF FRUITS ON FRUIT TYPE:-

  • Drupe Type:- Mango, Almond, Ber, Coconut, Aadu, Jamun, Aalucha
  • Berry Type:- Papaya, Banana, Guava, Date, Berry, Sapota
  • Pome Type:- Apple, Pear, Lokat
  • Hesperidium:- Orange, Citrus
  • Cyconus Type:- Anzeer
  • Nut Type:- Litchi, Cashew nut
  • Capsule Type:- Amla
  • Sorosis Type:- Pineapple, Jackfruit, Mulberry(Sahtoot)
  • Blastulla:- Pomegranate

EDIBLE PART OF FRUITS:-

  1. Mesocarp:- Mango, Banana, Papaya
  2. Mesocarp & Endocarp:- Banana, Ber
  3. Fleshy Thalamus:- Apple, Pear, Lukat
  4. Fleshy Aril:- Litchi
  5. Pericarp:- Grapes, Guava, Tomato
  6. Endosperm, Cotyledons & Embryo:- Coconut
  7. Juicy Testa:- Pomegranate
  8. Endocarpic Juicy Hairs:- Citrus
  9. Perianth:- Mulberry(Sahtoot)
  10. Seed:- Almond

SOME COMMON DESIGNATIONS OF FRUITS :-

  • King of Fruits:- Mango
  • Queen of Fruits:- Litchi
  • King of Temperate Fruits:- Apple
  • Butter Fruit:- Avocado
  • Fruit of New World:- Avocado
  • King of Arid Fruits:- Ber
  • Poor Man’s Fruit:- Ber
  • Century Plant (CAM Plant):- Dates
  • King of Forest:- Teak
  • Adam’s Fig:- Banana
  • Queen of Nuts:- Peanut
  • Fancy Fruits:- Andarin
  • King of Nut:- Walnut
  • Devine Tree/ Aeon Tree (Kalp-Vriksha):- Coconut

 

DISEASES IN FRUITS DUE TO DEFICIENCY OF SUBSTANCES:-

  1. Dieback in Lemon:- Copper (Cu)
  2. Little Leaf in Lemon:- Copper (Cu)
  3. Yellow Spot Disorder in Lemon:- Molybdenum (Mb)
  4. Internal Necrocin in Annola:- Boron (Bo)
  5. Little Leaf in Mango & Brinjal:- Zinc (Zn)
  6. Millerandge Disorder in Grapes:- Boron (Bo)
  7. Water Core in Banana :- Due to Particles of Ice & Deposition of Sorbitol
  8. Bronzing in Guava:- Zinc (Zn)
  9. Scorching (Burning of Leaves) in Mango:- Potassium (K) & Excess of Chloride in Water
  10. Internal Necrocin in Mangoes:- Boron (Bo)
  11. Scorching in Litchi:- Potassium (K)
  12. Black Tip in Mango:- SO2 Gas from Kiln
  13. Bunchy Disease in Peanut :- Zinc (Zn)
  14. “Hen & Chicken” in Grapes:- Boron (Bo)

SOME IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT FRUITS:-

  • West Bengal is the largest producer of Pineapple in India.
  • Nagpur[Maharashtra] is the largest producer of oranges in India.
  • Largest producer of Sapota is Maharashtra followed by Karnataka.
  • Mango is planted at 10x10m distance while Banana at 3x3m. Both are commercially broadcasted by the following methods respectively:- Beniar Grafting, Enarching, Circus.
  • Minimum requirement of fruits for human are 92gm.
  • The largest exporter nations of Banana in the world are:- Equador & Costa Rica respectively.
  • India is the largest Producer, Consumer, & Exporter of Cashew Nuts in the world. Maharashtra is the largest producer of Cashew Nuts in India followed by Kerala.
  • In fruits, maximum Vitamin C is present in Barbados Cherry.
  • In India, Annola (Awla) is produced maximum in Uttar Pradesh (Pratapgarh). Honeybees help in pollination of Annola.
  • In fruits, Litchi, Oranges, Lokat, Peach, & Apricot has their origin place in China; Bel,, Jackfruit & Falsa in India; Papaya, Avocado & Sapota in Mexico; Guava in Peru; Banana in South-Western Asia; Annola in Indo-China And Mango in Indo-Burma.
  • Bel is the main source of Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin).
  • Karonda is the main source of Iron.