krishigyan Published: 6 months ago

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VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

OLERICULTURE:- Study of vegetable science.
• Country with Maximum Production:- CHINA
• Country with Maximum Area under Production:- INDIA

• For balanced diet, a person should consume 300gm of vegetables [115gm leaved vegetables, 70gm root vegetables and 115gm others]
• Availability of vegetables in India [2012]:- 350gm/Person/Day
• In year 2011-12, India produced 156 Mn Metric Ton of vegetables in 7.9 Mn Hectare Area.
• At present, the vegetable productivity of India is 16.7 Mn Ton/Hectare.
• India is the 2nd largest producer of vegetables after China.
• India uses 2.8% of its agricultural land in vegetable production. It produces 13.38% of World’s total vegetable.
• India holds 1st position in production of Okra, Peas; 2nd in production of Brinjal, Potato, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Onion; and 3rd in production of Tomato.
• Both in production and cultivated area West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar hold 1st, 2nd and 3rd position respectively in India.
• Tamil Nadu has the highest productivity for vegetables in India.
• In vegetables, carbohydrate is present in the form of starch and sugar mostly found in Beetroot, Potato, Peas and Carrot.
• Green leaves of Gram, Green Peas, Cauliflower, Lobia, and Bathua contains protein in adequate amount.
 Acid present in Vegetables:-
a) Citric Acid:- Tomato, Leaf Vegetales, Legumes, Potatoes
b) Malic Acid:- Carrot, Onion

MAXIMUM NUTRITION VALUE IN VARIOUS VEGETABLES:-

A) VITAMIN A (RETINOL):-
1) Beet Root:- 9770 I.Q./100 gm
2) Spinach Leaves:- 9300 I.Q./100gm
3) Colocesiiya Leaves:- 10278 mg/100gm
4) Corriander Leaves:- 6917mg/100gm
5) Menthi Leaves:- 6450 I.Q./100gm

B) VITAMIN B1 (Thymin):-
1) Chillies:- 0.55mg/100gm
2) Colocesia leaves:- 0.22mg/100gm
3) Tomato:- 0.12mg/100gm

C) VITAMIN B2 (Riboflavin):-
1) Menthi Leaves:- 0.31mg/100gm
2) Amaranthus:- 0.30mg/100gm

D) VITAMIN C (Ascorbic Acid):-
1) Drumstick Leaves :- 200mg/100gm
2) Coriander Leaves:- 135mg/100gm
3) Chilies:- 111mg/100gm
4) Tomato:- 31mg/100gm

E) CARBOHYDRATE:-
1) Tepioca :- 38.1%
2) Beet Root:- 28.2%
3) Potato:- 22.7%
4) Curry Leaves:- 18.6%

F) Proteins:-
1) Green leaves of gram:- 8.2gm/100gm
2) Peas:- 7.2gm/100gm
3) Lobia:- 4.3gm/100gm
4) Indian Sem :- 3.8gm/100gm
G) Calcium:-
1) Curry Leaves:- 813mg/100gm
2) Amaranthus:- 395mg/100gm
3) Fenugreek Leaves:- 395mg/100gm
4) Raddish Leaves:- 295mg/100gm
H) Iron:-
1) Soft Amaranthus:- 25.5 mg/100gm
2) Coriander Leaves:- 18.5mg/100gm

CLASSIFICATION OF VEGETABLES

A) BASED ON USE:-
1) Root:- Carrot, Radish, Beetroot
2) Stem:- Potato, Cabbage
3)  Tuber:-Onion, Garlic
4) Undeveloped Flower:- Cauli-flower, Brocolli
5) Fruit:-Tomato, Chili, Brinjal, Okra. Wtermelon. Cucumber, Pumpkin, Bottle-Guard etc.
6) Seed:- Sem, Lobia

B) ACCORDING TO LIFE CYCLE:-
1) Annually:- Okra, Tomato, Lobia
2) Bi-annually:- Radish, Carrot, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Onion etc.
3) Multi-annually:- Pointed Gourd (Parwal), Garlic, Turmeric, Sugar-Root
C) ACCORDING TO FAMILIES:-
1) Amaryllidaceae:- Onion, Garlic
2) Crucifereae:- Cauliflower, Cabbage, Radish, Mustard, Turnip
3) Ambelliferae:- Carrot, Coriander
4) Leguminoseae:- Peas, Sem, Fenugreek, Soybean, Rajma
5) Malvaceae:- Okra
6) Solanaceae:- Potato, Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli